On tickets to Machupicchu

Machu Picchu Entrance restrictions?
In July 2011, the Dirección Regional de Cultura Cusco (DRC) introduced new entrance rules to the citadel of Machu Picchu. The tougher entrance rules attempted to reduce the effect of tourism. The entrance was limited to 2,500 visitors per day, and the entrance to Huayna Picchu (within the citadel) was further restricted to 400 visitors per day, in two-time slots, at 7 and 10 AM.

In May 2012, a team of UNESCO conservation experts called upon Peruvian authorities to take “emergency measures” to further stabilize the site’s buffer zone and protect it from damage, particularly in the nearby town of Aguas Calientes, which had grown rapidly.

What is the Ticket Type of entry: MachuPicchu ?

prices and schedules Entrance to the Machupicchu City Inka Circuit
General Ticket US $ 68
Student Ticket US $ 41
Machu picchu Check in from 6:00 hrs (800 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 7:00 hrs (800 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 8:00 hrs (800 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 9:00 hrs (560 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 10:00 hrs (600 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 11:00 hrs (600 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 12:00 hrs (360 tickets)
Machu picchu Check in from 13:00 hrs (540 tickets)
Departure Time 4 hours after admission
Machu picchu Check in from 14:00 hrs (540 tickets)
Departure Time 17:30 hrs
Tourist guide: Required (does not include ticket price)

Circuit 1

This circuit begins at the fork of the pedestrian path with traditional access to the Machu Picchu llaqta (40 meters from the main control), from where you ascend 241 meters to a platform where you get the first complete visual of the Machu Picchu llaqta . Continue your journey to the ceremonial platform where the Guardian’s House is located.

Then we descend by the road that comes from the Inca Bridge until the encounter with the road that descends from Intipunku, to arrive at the main entrance entrance to the urban sector of the Machu Picchu llaqta.

Upon entering the urban sector, the road continues until you reach the inverted entrance, where you descend to the area of ​​Chaos Granitico / Cantera. Then, descend to the Casa del Inca complex and then to the Temple of the Sun, then ascend the steps to the right of the fountains to arrive at the botanical garden and continue towards the Plaza de los Temples and ascend to the Pyramid of the Intihuatana. , which is a fast-paced area.

From the top of the Intihuatana pyramid, go down the back, towards the detour of the Llamacancha sector, skirting the platforms of the sunken plazas (Sector III-A) until you reach the Sacred Rock to continue the journey southeast on the back (east side) of the ushnu, arriving at an open space and the enclosure of the 12 bays, from where two options to continue the circuit are presented:

A) Continuing the journey in the southeast direction through the colcas and the ceremonial zone (Sector V-C, D) with two options:
a.1. Directly towards the set of water mirrors.

a.2. Towards the set of water mirrors through the lower part of it.

B) Entering the area of ​​the Three Covers (Sector V-A) to descend the stairway attached to the west wall of the set of water mirrors, with the option to enter the set.
From the main entryway to the set of water mirrors, the circuit continues to the Temple of the Condor to continue towards the fountains staircase from where the road is projected southward through the upper part of the area. archaeological reserve and crossing the dry moat to continue through the agricultural area and colcas towards the exit of the llaqta of Machu Picchu.

In this circuit, the areas of observation and photographic capture are: the lower platforms located at the intersection that comes from the Inca bridge and the road that goes to the Casa del Guardián; as well as the lower platform located at the southeast end of the Casa del Guardián. The stay in these areas should not exceed 20 minutes and should not alter the development of the circuit. These areas may be alternated with others, according to the purposes of recovery and conservation by arrangement of the head of the National Archaeological Park Machu Picchu (PANM).

Alternative to circuit 1

Visitors who do not wish to ascend to the Intihuatana pyramid can descend through the northern end of the botanical garden to join the path that leads to the Llamacancha sector.

To guarantee the satisfaction of the visitor, the tour of circuit 1 implies a referential time of three hours from entry to departure.

What is the Type of Entry Ticket: Machu Picchu + Waynapicchu mountain?
prices and schedules Entrance to the Machupicchu City Inka Circuit with Waynapicchu mountain hike Ticket
General Ticket US $ 84
Student Ticket US $ 57
Waynapicchu mountain Check in 7:00 – 8:00 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 6:00 hrs(100 tickets)
Waynapicchu mountain Check in 7:00 – 8:00 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 7:00 hrs (100 tickets)
Waynapicchu mountain Check in 10:30 -11:20 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 8:00 hrs (200 tickets)
Departure Time 6 hours after admission
Tourist guide: Not Required for Waynapicchu mountain hike

Circuit 1

This circuit begins at the fork of the pedestrian path with traditional access to the Machu Picchu llaqta (40 meters from the main control), from where you ascend 241 meters to a platform where you get the first complete visual of the Machu Picchu llaqta . Continue your journey to the ceremonial platform where the Guardian’s House is located.

Then we descend by the road that comes from the Inca Bridge until the encounter with the road that descends from Intipunku, to arrive at the main entrance entrance to the urban sector of the Machu Picchu llaqta.

Upon entering the urban sector, the road continues until you reach the inverted entrance, where you descend to the area of ​​Chaos Granitico / Cantera. Then, descend to the Casa del Inca complex and then to the Temple of the Sun, then ascend the steps to the right of the fountains to arrive at the botanical garden and continue towards the Plaza de los Temples and ascend to the Pyramid of the Intihuatana. , which is a fast-paced area.

From the top of the Intihuatana pyramid, go down the back, towards the detour of the Llamacancha sector, skirting the platforms of the sunken plazas (Sector III-A) until you reach the Sacred Rock to continue the journey southeast on the back (east side) of the ushnu, arriving at an open space and the enclosure of the 12 bays, from where two options to continue the circuit are presented:

A) Continuing the journey in the southeast direction through the colcas and the ceremonial zone (Sector V-C, D) with two options:
a.1. Directly towards the set of water mirrors.

a.2. Towards the set of water mirrors through the lower part of it.

B) Entering the area of ​​the Three Covers (Sector V-A) to descend the stairway attached to the west wall of the set of water mirrors, with the option to enter the set.
From the main entryway to the set of water mirrors, the circuit continues to the Temple of the Condor to continue towards the fountains staircase from where the road is projected southward through the upper part of the area. archaeological reserve and crossing the dry moat to continue through the agricultural area and colcas towards the exit of the llaqta of Machu Picchu.

In this circuit, the areas of observation and photographic capture are: the lower platforms located at the intersection that comes from the Inca bridge and the road that goes to the Casa del Guardián; as well as the lower platform located at the southeast end of the Casa del Guardián. The stay in these areas should not exceed 20 minutes and should not alter the development of the circuit. These areas may be alternated with others, according to the purposes of recovery and conservation by arrangement of the head of the National Archaeological Park Machu Picchu (PANM).

Alternative to circuit 1

Visitors who do not wish to ascend to the Intihuatana pyramid can descend through the northern end of the botanical garden to join the path that leads to the Llamacancha sector.

To guarantee the satisfaction of the visitor, the tour of circuit 1 implies a referential time of three hours from entry to departure.

What is Ticket Type of entry: Machu Picchu + Machupicchu Mountain?

prices and schedules Entrance to the Machupicchu City Inka Circuit with Machupicchu mountain hike Ticket
General Ticket US $ 84
Student Ticket US $ 57
Machupicchu mountain Check in 7:00 – 8:00 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 6:00 hrs(100 tickets)
Machupicchu mountain Check in 7:00 – 8:00 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 7:00 hrs (100 tickets)
Machupicchu mountain Check in 9:00 -10:00 hrs Machu picchu Check in from 8:00 hrs (200 tickets)
Departure Time 8 hours after admission
Tourist guide: Not Required for Machupicchu mountain hike
Circuit 1

This circuit begins at the fork of the pedestrian path with traditional access to the Machu Picchu llaqta (40 meters from the main control), from where you ascend 241 meters to a platform where you get the first complete visual of the Machu Picchu llaqta . Continue your journey to the ceremonial platform where the Guardian’s House is located.

Then we descend by the road that comes from the Inca Bridge until the encounter with the road that descends from Intipunku, to arrive at the main entrance entrance to the urban sector of the Machu Picchu llaqta.

Upon entering the urban sector, the road continues until you reach the inverted entrance, where you descend to the area of ​​Chaos Granitico / Cantera. Then, descend to the Casa del Inca complex and then to the Temple of the Sun, then ascend the steps to the right of the fountains to arrive at the botanical garden and continue towards the Plaza de los Temples and ascend to the Pyramid of the Intihuatana. , which is a fast-paced area.

From the top of the Intihuatana pyramid, go down the back, towards the detour of the Llamacancha sector, skirting the platforms of the sunken plazas (Sector III-A) until you reach the Sacred Rock to continue the journey southeast on the back (east side) of the ushnu, arriving at an open space and the enclosure of the 12 bays, from where two options to continue the circuit are presented:

A) Continuing the journey in the southeast direction through the colcas and the ceremonial zone (Sector V-C, D) with two options:
a.1. Directly towards the set of water mirrors.

a.2. Towards the set of water mirrors through the lower part of it.

B) Entering the area of ​​the Three Covers (Sector V-A) to descend the stairway attached to the west wall of the set of water mirrors, with the option to enter the set.
From the main entryway to the set of water mirrors, the circuit continues to the Temple of the Condor to continue towards the fountains staircase from where the road is projected southward through the upper part of the area. archaeological reserve and crossing the dry moat to continue through the agricultural area and colcas towards the exit of the llaqta of Machu Picchu.

In this circuit, the areas of observation and photographic capture are: the lower platforms located at the intersection that comes from the Inca bridge and the road that goes to the Casa del Guardián; as well as the lower platform located at the southeast end of the Casa del Guardián. The stay in these areas should not exceed 20 minutes and should not alter the development of the circuit. These areas may be alternated with others, according to the purposes of recovery and conservation by arrangement of the head of the National Archaeological Park Machu Picchu (PANM).

Alternative to circuit 1

Visitors who do not wish to ascend to the Intihuatana pyramid can descend through the northern end of the botanical garden to join the path that leads to the Llamacancha sector.

To guarantee the satisfaction of the visitor, the tour of circuit 1 implies a referential time of three hours from entry to departure.

What is the best type of entrance ticket to Machupicchu, which suits me?
entrance tickets are recommended Machu Picchu + Mountain

  • Since it includes a route to the Machupicchu mountain where you have a privileged view of Machupicchu
  • It is valid for a visit Machupicchu for 7 hours after admission (including the mountain Machupicchu)
  • No tourist guide is required, you have more freedom for your visit
  • Best price the cost of admission is US $ 84 a single entry Machupicchu (maximum visit of 4 hours after admission) is US $ 68 + Tourism guide US $ 30 approximately total = US $ 98 approximatelyentrance tickets are recommended Machupicchu + Huaynapicchu
    • Since it includes a trip to the huaynapicchu mountain where you have a privileged view of Machupicchu
    • It is valid for a visit Machupicchu for 6 hours after admission (including Huaynapicchu mountain)
    • No tourist guide is required, you have more freedom for your visit
    • Best price the cost of admission is US $ 84 a single entry Machupicchu (maximum visit of 4 hours after admission) is US $ 68 + Tourism guide US $ 30 approximately total = US $ 98 approximately

About Machupicchu

What is Machu Picchu?
Machu Picchu (“Old Mountain”) is the contemporary name given to a llaqta -an ancient Andean-Inca town built before the fifteenth century on the rocky promontory that connects the Machu Picchu, Putucusi and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slope of the Cordillera Central, south of Peru and at 2490 masl, altitude of its main square. Its original name would have been Llaqtapata.

According to documents from the mid-sixteenth century,

Machu Picchu would have been one of the resting residences of Pachacútec, the ninth Inca of Tahuantinsuyo between 1438 and 1470. However, some of its best constructions and the evident ceremonial nature of the main access road to the llaqta give an account of its previous origin to Pachacutec and its presumed use as a religious sanctuary.

Both uses, the palace and the sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Even when its alleged military character is discussed, so the popular qualifiers of “fortress” or “citadel” could have been overcome.

Machu Picchu is considered at the same time a masterpiece of architecture and engineering?
Its peculiar architectural and landscape features, and the veil of mystery that has woven around it much of the literature published on the site, have made it one of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.

Machu Picchu is on the Unesco World Heritage List since 1983, as part of a whole cultural and ecological group known as the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. On July 7, 2007 Machu Picchu was declared one of the seven new maavillas of the modern world in a ceremony held in Lisbon (Portugal), which was attended by one hundred million voters around the world.

What is the geographical location of Machu Picchu?
It is located at 13º 9 ’47 “south latitude and 72º 32′ 44” west longitude. It is part of the district of the same name, in the province of Urubamba, in the department of Cuzco, in Peru. The closest important city is Cuzco, current regional capital and former capital of the Incas, 132 km away.

The Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains are part of a large orographic formation known as the Vilcabamba batholith, in the Central Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. They are located on the left bank of the so-called Urubamba Canyon, formerly known as Quebrada de Picchu. ? At the foot of the hills; The river Vilcanota-Urubamba runs around them. The Inca archaeological site is located halfway between the peaks of both mountains, 450 meters above the level of the valley and 2438 meters above sea level. The built surface is approximately 530 meters long by 200 wide, with 172 buildings in its urban area. Biogeographically it is located in the ecoregion of the Peruvian yungas.

The ruins, properly said, are within an intangible territory of the National System of Natural Areas Protected by the State (SINANPE), called the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, which extends over an area of ​​32 592 hectares, (80 535 acres or 325 , 92 km²) of the Vilcanota-Urubamba river basin (the Willka mayu or ‘sacred river’ of the Incas). The Historical Sanctuary protects a series of biological species in danger of extinction and several Inca settlements ,? among which Machu Picchu is considered principal.

How to Reach/ Access to Machu Picchu?
The archaeological zone is accessible, either from the post-Inca roads that reach it, or using the Hiram Bingham road (which ascends the hill slope Machu Picchu from the train station in Aguas Calientes, located at the bottom of the canyon). Neither of the two forms exempts the visitor from the entrance price to the complex.

The aforementioned highway, however, is not integrated into the national road network of Peru. It is born in the town of Aguas Calientes, which in turn can only be accessed by rail (about three hours from Cuzco). The absence of a direct highway to the sanctuary of Machu Picchu is intentional and allows controlling the flow of visitors to the area, which, given its character of national reserve, is particularly sensitive to crowds. This, however, has not prevented the disorderly growth (criticized by the cultural authorities) of Aguas Calientes, which lives for and for tourism, as there are hotels and restaurants of different categories in this place.

The advisable thing is to organize the transport previously. If you are staying in the city of Cuzco, the first section to travel would be from the city of Cuzco to Ollantaytambo, which can be done by train, or by road. The approximate duration of that route is 2 hours. In Ollantaytambo there is another train station, where the journey to the town of Aguas Calientes begins. You must buy the train ticket in advance, since the city of Machu Picchu has a maximum number of visitors per day and it is better to separate spaces (like the entrance to the sanctuary). I can make the purchase via internet on the website of the train companies InkaRail or PeruRail. The train ride is about 1 hour and 45 minutes. And finally, when you get to Aguas Calientes you must take a bus to the entrance of the Machu Picchu sanctuary, which takes approximately 30 minutes. This bus ticket can be purchased at the ticket office in the town of Aguas Calientes minutes before boarding the bus or previously in the city of Cuzco, to avoid possible queues on the same day. Remember that purchases must be made by presenting an identity document such as a passport or ID. Another recommended option is to make the tour reservation that includes transportation and buy the whole package. The cost does not vary much.

How to reach Machu Picchu by Inca Trail?
Another recommended option is to reserve tour that includes transportation and purchase the entire package. The cost does not vary much.

Route First name Description Days
1 km 82 Pisqakucho Chac Wayllabamba Wiñaywayna-Machupicchu 4
2 km 88 Qoriwayrachina-Wayllabamba-Wiñaywayna-Machupicchu 4
3 Salkantay MOLLEPATA-Silcakancha-Soraypampa-Lluskumayu-Lucmabamba-Sta Teresa-Hidroelectrica Hot-Water 4
4 km 82 Pisqakucho-Qoriwayrachina-Papaymayu low-Chanchabamba-Wiñaywayna-Machupicchu 4
5 km 104 Chachabamba-Wiñaywayna-Machupicchu 2

 

Formerly to reach Machu Picchu by the main Inca road should make a walk of about three days. This requires taking a train or bus to km 82 of the railway from Cuzco to Aguas Calientes, which coincides with the boundary of the National Park of Machu Picchu, from where the walking tour.

How to reach Machu Picchu by road?
Road option Cusco -Sta Teresa-Hidroelectrica-Aguas Calientes

by road from Cuzco to Sta Teresa-Hidroelectrica 6:30 hours approximately. Once there, they cross the train tracks until covering 3 hours or 9 km of walk to Aguas Calientes.

How is the weather on Machu Picchu?
The temperature is warm and wet during the day and cool night. The temperature ranges between 12 and 24 degrees Celsius. The area in general is very rainy, especially between November and March. The rains, which are copious, rapidly alternating with moments of intense sunshine.

average climatic parameters Machu Picchu
Month Jan. Feb. Sea. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Ago. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Temp. Max. Average (° C) 20 20 20 21 21 20 20 21 21 22 22 21 20.8
Temp. media (°C) 14 14 14 13.5 12.5 11 10.5 12 13 14.5 14.5 14.5 13.2
Temp. min. Average (° C) 8 8 8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 7 8 5.6
Precipitation total (mm) 228 209 205 115 36 21 28 37 56 95 117 177 1324
Precipitation days (≥) 18 14 15 6 3 3 3 3 5 9 11 16 106
Relative humidity (%) 67 70 70 64 62 59 58 58 58 60 60 65 62.6

How is the Geography of Machu Picchu?
The set of the archaeological site has been built on the Vilcabamba batholith, composed of intrusive rocks that date approximately 250 million years ago, Permian-Triassic intrusive mainly from white to grayish granite, cut by some veins of tonalites and talceschistos. The granite massif is cut by a series of faults and diaclases that play an important role in the current shape of the relief and its evolution. In the Geological Map of the Machu Picchu Quadrangle (27-q) of the Mining and Metallurgical Geological Institute of Peru there are two major regional fault lines that cut the area, called Fallas Huayna Picchu and Machu Picchu, oriented NE-SO. These failures have not had recent activity.
What is the history of Machu Picchu?
The Machu Picchu ravine, located halfway between the Andes and the Amazon forest, was a region colonized by Andean, non-jungle populations, coming from the Vilcabamba and Sacred Valley regions, in Cuzco, in search of an expansion of its borders agrarian Archaeological evidence indicates that agriculture is practiced in the region since at least 760 a. C.? A demographic explosion occurs from the Middle Horizon Period, from the year 900 of our era, by groups not historically documented but possibly linked to the Tampu ethnic group of the Urubamba. It is believed that these people could have been part of the Ayarmaca federation, rivals of the first Incas of Cuzco. ? During this period the “built” agricultural area (platforms) expanded considerably. However, the specific location of the city in question (the rocky ridge that joins the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains) shows no signs of having had buildings before the fifteenth century.

Inca times (1438-1534)

Towards 1440, during its campaign towards Vilcabamba, the Picchu ravine was conquered by Pachacútec,? first Inca del Tahuantinsuyo (1438-1470). The site of Machu Picchu must have impressed the monarch for its peculiar characteristics within the sacred geography of Cusco. and for that reason it would have sent to construct there, towards 1450, an urban complex with buildings of great civil and religious luxury.

It is believed that Machu Picchu had a mobile population like most of the Inca llactas, which ranged between 300 and 1000 inhabitants? belonging to an elite (possibly members of the Pachacutec panaca)? and acllas. It has been shown that the agricultural force was composed of mitimai settlers or mitmas (mitmaqkuna) from different corners of the empire.

Machu Picchu was not from any point of view an isolated complex, so the myth of the “lost city” and the “secret refuge” of the Inca sovereigns lacks a foothold. The valleys that converged in the gorge formed a densely populated region that dramatically increased agricultural productivity from the Inca occupation, in 1440. The Incas built many administrative centers there, the most important of which were Patallacta and Quente Marca ,? and abundant agricultural complexes formed by cultivation terraces. Machu Picchu depended on these complexes for their food, since the fields of the agrarian sector of the city would have been insufficient to supply the population. Intraregional communication was possible thanks to the networks of Inca roads: eight roads reached Machu Picchu. The small city of Picchu was differentiated from neighboring towns by the unique quality of its main buildings.

At the death of Pachacutec, and in accordance with the Inca royal customs, this and the rest of his personal property would have passed to the administration of his panaca, which was to allocate the income produced to the cult of the mummy of the late Inca. It is presumed that this situation would have been maintained during the governments of Túpac Yupanqui (1470-1493) and Huayna Cápac (1493-1529).

Machu Picchu had to lose in part its importance by having to compete in prestige with the personal properties of the sovereign successors. In fact, the opening of a safer and wider road between Ollantaytambo and Vilcabamba (that of the Amaybamba Valley) made the route of the Picchu ravine less used.

Machu Picchu had to lose in part its importance by having to compete in prestige with the personal properties of the sovereign successors. In fact, the opening of a safer and wider road between Ollantaytambo and Vilcabamba (that of the Amaybamba Valley) made the route of the Picchu ravine less used.

Time of transition (1534-1572)

The Inca civil war (1531-32) and the Spanish invasion in Cuzco in 1534 must have considerably affected the life of Machu Picchu. The peasant mass of the region was composed mainly of mitmas, settlers from different nations conquered by the Incas forcibly taken to that place. They took advantage of the fall of the economic system of Cusco to return to their lands of origin. The Inca resistance against the Spanish led by Manco Inca in 1536 summoned the nobles of the nearby regions to integrate his court into exile in Vilcabamba ,? and it is very probable that the main nobles of Picchu have left the city then. Documents of the time indicate that the region was full of “depopulated” at that time.? Picchu would have remained inhabited, since it was considered a tributary population of the Spanish encomienda of Ollantaytambo. That does not necessarily mean that the Spaniards visited Machu Picchu frequently; In fact, we know that the Picchu tribute was delivered to the Spaniards once a year in the town of Ollantaytambo, and not “picked up” locally. In any case, it is clear that the Spaniards knew about the place, although there is no indication that it was a place frequently visited by the Spaniards annually. The colonial documents even mention the name of the curaca (perhaps the last) of Machu Picchu in 1568: Juan Mácora.? That it be called “Juan” indicates that he had been, at least nominally, baptized, and, therefore, subject to Spanish influence.

Another document indicates that the Inca Titu Cusi Yupanqui, who then reigned in Vilcabamba, requested that Augustinian friars go to evangelize “Piocho” around 1570. There is no known place in the area that is similar to “Piocho” other than “Piccho” “or” Picchu “, which makes Lumbreras assume that the famous” extirpators of idolatries “could have reached the site and have had to do with the destruction and fire of the Temple of the Sun Tower.

The Spanish soldier Baltasar de Ocampo wrote in the late sixteenth century about a village “on top of a mountain” of buildings “sumptuous” and that housed a large acllahuasi (‘house of the chosen’) in the last years of the Inca resistance . The brief description he makes of his environments sends us to Picchu. The most interesting thing is that Ocampo says it’s called “Pitcos”. The only place with a similar name is Vitcos, an Inca site in Vilcabamba completely different from that described by Ocampo. The other candidate is, naturally, Picchu.? It is not known until today if it is the same place or not. Ocampo indicates that Túpac Amaru I, successor of Titu Cusi and last Inca of Vilcabamba, had been raised in this place.

Between the colony and the republic (17th-19th century)

After the fall of the kingdom of Vilcabamba in 1572 and the consolidation of Spanish power in the Central Andes, Machu Picchu remained within the jurisdiction of different colonial haciendas that changed hands several times until republican times (since 1821). However, it had already become a remote place, far from the new roads and economic axes of Peru. The region was practically ignored by the colonial regime (which did not order the construction of Christian temples or administer any town in the area), although not by the Andean man.

Indeed, the agricultural sector of Machu Picchu does not seem to have been completely uninhabited or unknown: 165740 documents? and of 178241? they allude to Machu Picchu, as land of agricultural interest. Its main constructions, however, those of its urban area, do not seem to have been occupied and were soon won by the vegetation of the cloud forest.

Machu Picchu in the 19th century

In 1865, during the course of his exploratory journeys through Peru, the Italian naturalist Antonio Raimondi passes unknowingly to the foot of the ruins and alludes to how sparsely populated the region was then. However, everything indicates that it is in those years when the area begins to receive visits for interests other than purely scientific ones.

In effect an investigation currently under way recently disclosed? reveals information about a German businessman named Augusto Berns who in 1867 would not only have “discovered” the ruins but would have founded a “mining” company to exploit the alleged “treasures” they housed (the Exploitation Company of the Huacas del Inca). According to this source, between 1867 and 1870 and with the permission of José Balta’s government, the company would have operated in the area and then sold “everything it found” to European and North American collectors.

Connected or not with this presumed company (whose existence expects to be confirmed by other sources and authors) the truth is that it is at those moments when mining prospecting maps begin to mention Machu Picchu. Thus, in 1870, the American Harry Singer places for the first time on a map the location of Cerro Machu Picchu and refers to Huayna Picchu as “Punta Huaca del Inca”. The name reveals an unprecedented relationship between the Incas and the mountain and even suggests a religious character (a huaca in the Ancient Andes was a sacred place). A second map of 1874, drawn up by the German Herman Gohring, mentions and locates both mountains in their exact place. Finally in 1880 the French explorer Charles Wiener confirms the existence of archaeological remains in the place (he affirms “I was told about other cities, Huayna Picchu and Machu Picchu”), although he can not reach the site. In any case it is clear that the existence of the alleged “lost city” had not been forgotten, as was believed until a few years ago.

Rediscovery of Machu Picchu (1894-1911)

The first direct references to visitors to the ruins of Machu Picchu indicate that Agustín Lizárraga, a tenant of Cusco lands, arrived at the site on July 14, 1902, guiding the also from Cusco, Gabino Sánchez, Enrique Palma and Justo Ochoa. The visitors left a graffiti with their names on one of the walls of the Temple of the Sun which was later verified by several people. There is information that suggests that Lizárraga had already visited Machu Picchu in the company of Luis Béjar in 1894. Lizárraga showed the constructions to the “visitors”, although the nature of their activities has not been investigated until now.

Hiram Bingham, a US history professor interested in finding the last Inca redoubts of Vilcabamba heard about Lizárraga from his contacts with local landowners. This is how he arrived at Machu Picchu on July 24, 1911, guided by another land tenant, Melchor Arteaga, and accompanied by a sergeant of the Peruvian Civil Guard named Carrasco. They found two families of peasants living there: the Recharte and the Álvarez, who used the platforms south of the ruins to cultivate and drink water from an Inca canal that still worked and brought water from a spring. Pablo Recharte, one of the children of Machu Picchu, led Bingham to the “urban area” covered by brush.

Bingham was very impressed by what he saw and managed the auspices of Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian government to immediately begin the scientific study of the site. Thus, with the engineer Ellwood Erdis, the osteologist George Eaton, the direct participation of Toribio Recharte and Anacleto Álvarez and a group of anonymous workers in the area, Bingham led archaeological work in Machu Picchu in 1912 until 1915, during which time the undergrowth and Inca tombs were excavated in the outskirts of the city. The “public life” of Machu Picchu begins in 1913 with the publication of all of this in an article in the National Geographic magazine.

Although it is clear that Bingham does not discover Machu Picchu in the strict sense of the word (nobody did it since he never really “lost”), he undoubtedly had the merit of being the first person to recognize the importance of the ruins, studying them with a multidisciplinary team and divulging their findings. This despite the fact that the archaeological criteria used were not the most appropriate from the current perspective ,? and despite, also, the controversy that until now involves the more than irregular departure from the country of excavated archaeological material (which consists of at least 46 332 pieces) and that only in March 2011 began to be returned to Peru.

Machu Picchu since 1915

Between 1924 and 1928 Martín Chambi and Juan Manuel Figueroa made a series of photographs in Machu Picchu that were published in different Peruvian magazines, massifying the local interest on the ruins and turning them into a national symbol. With the passage of decades, and especially since the opening in 1948 of a carriage route that climbed the mountain slope to the ruins from the train station, Machu Picchu became the main tourist destination of Peru. During the first two thirds of the twentieth century, however, the interest in its tourist exploitation was greater than that of conservation and study of the ruins, which did not prevent some notable researchers from advancing in solving the mysteries of Machu Picchu, highlighting especially the works of the Viking Found directed by Paul Fejos on the Inca sites of Machu Picchu (“discovering” several establishments of the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu) and the investigations of Luis E. Valcárcel that related for the first time to the site with Pachacútec. It is from the 1970s that new generations of archaeologists (Chávez Ballón, Lorenzo, Ramos Condori, Zapata, Sánchez, Valencia, Gibaja), historians (Glave and Remy, Rowe, Angles), astronomers (Dearborn, White, Thomson) and anthropologists (Reinhard, Urton) deal with the investigation of the ruins and their past.

The establishment of an Ecological Protection Zone around the ruins in 1981, the inclusion of Machu Picchu as a member of the World Heritage List in 1983, and the adoption of a Master Plan for the sustainable development of the region in 2005 have been the most important milestones in the effort to conserve Machu Picchu and its surroundings. However have some poor partial restorations in the past conspired against these efforts ,? forest fires, like the one of 1997 and political conflicts arisen in the near populations in favor of a better distribution of the resources obtained by the State in the administration of the ruins.

Recent events

On September 8, 2000, when an advertising commercial of beer from Cuzco (Backus & Johnston) was recorded, a crane used fell on the famous Intihuatana (“solar clock”), breaking about 8 cm from the tip. The case led to a claim by the INC and the request for the respective compensation in 2005.

In July of 2003 the singer Gloria Estefan visited her and recorded in her landscapes the video clip with lyrics by the Peruvian singer-songwriter Gian Marco for the song Hoy (Today) from the album Unwrapped.

On November 10, 2003, the Peruvian Congress issues Law 28100, which establishes that 10% of the income collected by entering the Archaeological Park of Machu Picchu, administered by the National Institute of Culture, will be allocated to the municipality of Machu Picchu. .

On July 12, 2006, the Peruvian Congress issued Law 28778 for the repatriation of archaeological objects that are part of the Machu Picchu collection of the Peabody Museum of Yale University in the United States, which were authorized to leave the country. by Supreme Decrees 1529 of October 31, 1912 and by Supreme Decrees 31 of January 27, 1916.

In June 2007, the actress Cameron Diaz, the visit to make a documentary of the program 4Real of the CTV chain.

In 2007, the government of Peru decreed July 7 as the “Day of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, New Wonder of the World”, because on July 7, 2007Machu Picchu was named one of the winners in the list of the New wonders of the world.

In September 2007, Yale University said that it will return 4,000 archaeological pieces found by Hiram Bingham and that it will act as promoter of its exhibition in an itinerant museum and finally in a museum in Cuzco.

On October 26, 2015 the town of Machu Picchu, Cusco, Peru signed for the first time the city twinning agreement with Otama-mura of Fukushima prefecture of Japan. Both towns reached the agreement of town twinning with another place for the first time. The people of Machu Picchu receive many requests for this agreement from around the world for being a Unesco World Heritage but decided to sign their first agreement with Otama-mura where the first mayor of the town of Machu Picchu, Yokichi Nouchi (1895 – 1969) was born who immigrated to Peru at the age of 21 and contributed to the economic and tourist development of Machu Picchu.

What to see in Machu Picchu?
The area built in Machu Picchu is 530 meters long by 200 wide and includes at least 172 enclosures. The complex is clearly divided into two large areas: the agricultural zone, formed by sets of cultivation terraces, located to the south; and the urban area, which is, of course, the one where the occupants lived and where the main civil and religious activities took place. Both zones are separated by a wall, a moat and a stairway, elements that run parallel to the east slope of the mountain. An appreciable part of the ruins that can be seen today are actually recent reconstructions, as can be seen when comparing the images obtained in the 1910s with the current ones.

Agricultural area

The terraces (cultivation terraces) of Machu Picchu look like large steps built on the hillside. They are structures formed by a stone wall and a filling of different layers of material (large stones, minor stones, gravel, clay and farmland) that facilitate drainage, preventing the water from getting into them (take into account the large rainfall in the area) and its structure collapses. This type of construction allowed cultivation on them until the first decade of the twentieth century. Other platforms of smaller width are in the lower part of Machu Picchu, around the entire city. Its function was not agricultural but to serve as retaining walls.

Five large constructions are located on the platforms east of the Inca road that reaches Machu Picchu from the south. They were used as storerooms or warehouses. To the west of the road are two other large sets of platforms: some concentric semicircular cut and other straight.

Urban zone

A wall about 400 meters long divides the city from the agricultural area. Parallel to the wall runs a “moat” used as the main drainage of the city. At the top of the wall is the Machu Picchu gate that had an internal locking mechanism. The urban area has been divided by current archaeologists into groups of buildings named by a number between 1 and 18. The scheme proposed by Chávez Ballón in 1961, which divides it into one sector hanan (high) and another hurin ( low) according to the traditional bipartition of society and the Andean hierarchy. The physical axis of this division is an elongated plaza, built on terraces at different levels according to the slope of the mountain.

The second axis in importance of the city forms a cross with the previous one, crossing almost the entire width of the ruins from east to west: It consists of two elements: a wide and long stairway that acts as a “main street” and a set of elaborate water sources that runs parallel to it. At the intersection of both axes are the Inca’s residence, the temple-observatory of the tower and the first and most important of the water sources.

Hanan Sector

Set 1

Set 1 includes structures related to the care of those who came to the city through the door (a “vestibular area”), stables for camelids, workshops, kitchens and rooms. All this on the east side of the road, in a succession of parallel streets that go down the mountain slope. The most important construction, the vestibular building, had two floors and several accesses. On the left hand side of the entrance road there are lower-ranking rooms that would be related to work in the quarries, located in the vicinity of this sector. All the constructions are of common rigging and many of them were plastered and painted.

Sun Temple

It is accessed by a double jamb cover, which remained closed (there are remains of a security mechanism). The main building is known as “Torreón”, with finely carved blocks. It was used for ceremonies related to the June solstice. One of its windows shows traces of having embedded ornaments that were uprooted at some point in the history of Machu Picchu, destroying part of its structure. In addition there are traces of a large fire in the place. The tower is built on a large rock below which there is a small cave that has been completely lined with fine masonry. It is believed that it was a mausoleum and that mummies rested in its large niches. Lumbreras even speculates that there are indications to affirm that it could have been the Pachacutec mausoleum and that his mummy was here until shortly after the Spanish invasion in Cuzco.

Royal residence

Of the constructions destined to housing this is the finest, largest and best distributed of Machu Picchu. Its access door gives to the first source of the city and, crossing the “street” formed by the great staircase, to the Temple of the Sun. It includes two rooms of great monolithic lintels and walls of well-worked stone. One of those rooms has access to a service room with a drain channel. The set includes a corral for camelids and a private terrace overlooking the east side of the city.

Sacred square

It is called like this to a set of constructions arranged around a square patio. All the evidences indicate that the place was destined to different rituals. It includes two of the best buildings in Machu Picchu, which are formed by large carved rocks: The Temple of the Three Windows, whose walls of large polygonal blocks were assembled like a puzzle, and the Main Temple, of more regular blocks, which It is believed that it was the main ceremonial site of the city. Attached to the latter is the so-called “house of the priest” or “chamber of ornaments”. There are indications that suggest that the general assembly was not finished.

Intihuatana

It is a hill whose flanks were converted into terraces, taking the form of a large pyramid with a polygonal base. It includes two long access stairs, to the north and to the south, the latter being especially interesting for being in a long stretch carved in a single rock. At the top, surrounded by elite buildings, is the Intihuatana stone (‘where the Sun is moored’), one of the most studied objects of Machu Picchu, which has been related to a series of places considered sacred from which establish clear alignments between astronomical events and the surrounding mountains.?

Hurin Sector

Sacred Rock

It is called this way to a stone of flat face placed on a wide pedestal. It is a landmark that marks the northern end of the city and is the starting point of the road to Huayna Picchu.

Group of the three covers

It is a large architectural complex dominated by three large kanchas arranged symmetrically and interconnected. Their covers, of identical invoice, give to the main square of Machu Picchu. Includes homes and workshops.

Group of mortars or acllahuasi

It is the largest group in the city despite which it had only one entrance door, something that could suggest that it was the Acllahuasi (or ‘house of chosen women’) of Machu Picchu, dedicated to religious service and fine craftsmanship . It includes a famous well-carved stone room on whose floor there are two rocky outcrops carved in the form of circular mortars supposedly for grinding grain. Some authors think that they were filled with water and they reflected the stars. The set includes evidence of a ritual use, there are altars and even a court built around a large rock. Part of their environments prove to have been elite residences.70?

Condor Group

It is a large set of constructions, not always regular, that takes advantage of the contours of the rocks. It includes some caves with evidence of ritual use and a large carved stone in the center of a large courtyard in which many believe they see the representation of a condor. South of the “condor” are elite homes, which had the only private access to one of Machu Picchu’s fountains. Between the houses and the patio of the condor has been identified clear remains of buildings dedicated to raising guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

Steps of the fountains

It is a set formed by a large staircase next to which runs a system of 16 artificial falls of water, most of which are carefully carved in polygonal blocks and surrounded by gutters carved into the rock. The water comes from a spring in the heights of Cerro Machu Picchu that was channeled in the time of the Empire. An additional system on top of the mountain collects leaks from the mountain rain and drifts them to the main channel.

Areas of the quarries

At the top, immediately after entering the main street, there are six rooms, connected by a staircase. These are rustic buildings that probably served as housing for the guardians of the main gate, as well as stonemasons, stone carvers and stoneworkers, as the quarry is very close to this group.

In archaeological excavations have been found pots, plates, aríbalos for water, wells, a stone mill and scorched earth; by these it is deduced that it was cooked for a large number of people and chicha was prepared (excavations by Julinho Zapara). Also in relation to this area were found many tools and very hard stones.

This area of ​​quarries shows a diversity of carved or semi-carved rocks, with cuts for construction, among which canals, inlets and overhangs, half-cut rocks and ramps to mobilize them stand out. The enclosures of this area are directly related to the suppliers of construction material for the different zones or groupings of the city of Machupicchu.

Originally the entire area where the city of Machupicchu was located was a large quarry that geologists call “granite chaos”. The rocks, which were transformed into lithic polyhedra and transported to work, are of different qualities. There they received the finishing and the final carving. The polishing would be carried out after being placed on the facing, for example in the temple of the animals.

As a curious detail, it should be noted that there is a stone with cracks or cracks made to extract new stones during some of the restorations. Some misinformed guides usually show it, stating that wet trunks were placed in the grooves that, when expanded, produced the fracture. Such an explanation is only possible in the imagination.

What are constructive aspects of Machu Picchu?
Hydraulic and soil engineering

A stone city built on top of an “isthmus” between two mountains and between two geological faults, in a region subject to constant earthquakes and, above all, to heavy rains all year long, is a challenge for any builder: avoid everything the complex falls apart. According to Alfredo Valencia and Keneth Wright “the secret of the longevity of Machu Picchu is its drainage system”? In effect, the soil of its non-roofed areas is provided with a drainage system consisting of layers of gravel (crushed stones) and rocks to prevent the impovement of rainwater. 129 drainage channels? they extend throughout the urban area, designed to avoid splashing and erosion, leading to the greater part of the “moat” that separates the urban from the agricultural area, which was in fact the main drainage of the city. It is estimated that sixty percent of the constructive effort of Machu Picchu was in making the foundations on terraces filled with gravel for a good drainage of the surplus waters.

Orientation of the constructions

There is solid evidence that the builders took into account astronomical criteria and rituals for construction according to the studies of Dearborn, White, Thomson and Reinhard, among others. Indeed, the alignment of some important buildings coincides with the solar azimuth during the solstices in a constant manner and therefore not at all casual, with the points of sunrise and sunset of the sun at certain times of the year and with the summits of the surrounding mountains.

Architecture

materials

All conserved constructions are whitish granite, composed 60% by feldspar, 30% by quartz and 10% by mica. All the material came from the quarries located in the contours of the Inca complex.

The rock has between 6 to 7 degrees of hardness on the Mohs scale. In the Empire it was worked with barges and other tools of bronze (iron tools were not used in ancient Peru) and percutores of harder rocks. The rocks were smoothed by abrasion with sand.

Morphology

Almost all buildings are rectangular. There are one, two and even eight doors, usually on only one of the long sides of the rectangle. There are few curved and circular floor constructions.

Constructions called huayranas are frequent. These have only three walls. In these cases, in the space of the “missing wall” there is sometimes a stone colonnade to support a wooden beam that served as a support for the roof. There are also huayranasdobles, two huayranas joined by a dividing wall, which is called masmas.

The constructions usually follow the scheme of the kanchas, that is to say four rectangular constructions arranged around a central patio joined by an axis of transversal symmetry. All doors are given to this patio.

Walls

The rigging of the stone walls was basically of two types.

Of common stone joined with mud mortar and other substances. There is evidence that these constructions, which are the majority in Machu Picchu, were plastered with a layer of clay and painted (in yellow and red colors at least), 80? 81? although the early disintegration of the roofs made them vulnerable to the permanent rain of the area and therefore they have not been conserved.

Finely carved stone in the elite constructions. They are blocks of granite, without plaster and perfectly carved in the form of rectangular prisms (parallelepipeds, like bricks) or polygonal. Their outer faces could be padded, that is, protruding, or perfectly smooth. In these cases, the union of the blocks seems perfect and has made us suppose that it does not have any type of mortar; but in fact it does, it is a thin layer of binder material that is between stone and stone although it is invisible from the outside. The effort of these realizations in a society without iron tools (they only knew bronze, much softer) is remarkable.

Coverages

No original roof has been preserved, but there is a consensus that most of the constructions had roofs with two or four roofs, there was even a conical roof over the “turret”; and was formed by a framework of alder trunks (Alnus acuminata) moored and covered by layers of ichu (Stipa ichuun). The fragility of this type of straw and the copiousness of the rains in the region made it necessary for these roofs to have inclines of up to 63º. Thus the height of the roofs often doubled the height of the rest of the building.

Covers, windows and niches

As is typical of Inca architecture, most of the covers, windows and niches (called false windows, niches or cupboards) are trapezoidal in shape, wider at the base than in the lintel. The lintels could be made of wood or stone (often from a single large block). The covers of the most important enclosures were of double jamb and in some cases they included an internal closing mechanism.

The interior walls of many of the buildings have trapezoidal niches, next to the windows. Cylindrical or rectangular blocks often protrude from the walls like large hangers, arranged symmetrically with the niches or niches and windows, when there are any.

What Surroundings and Inca roads are there in Machu Picchu?

Machu Picchu, as an integral part of a region of great economic movement in Pachacutec times, was integrated into the network of Inca roads of the Empire. Using these routes you can, until today, access other nearby Inca complexes that are of great interest. To the north, by the bifurcations of the Huayna Picchu road, you can reach the so-called Temple of the Moon or the mountain top where Inca constructions exist. To the west is the road that leads to Intipata and passes through the famous “removable bridge”. Another road, through which Agustín Lizárraga ascended, leads to the river and San Miguel.

To the south, however, is the most well-known and the most important route of all, which is the most popular trekking route in Peru. The Inca trail to Machu Picchu is a journey of three to four days that goes through what, at the end of the 15th century, was the main access route to Machu Picchu, which began at the Llactapata complex and passed through the ceremonial centers of Sayacmarca, Phuyupatamarca and Wiñay Wayna, to finish in the Intipunku tambo, the “gate” of entrance to the domains of Machu Picchu and end of the route.

other roads
Road to the mountain machupicchu
Road to Inka bridge
Road to intipunku

Machu Picchu New wonder of the world?
On July 7, 2007, Machu Picchu was chosen as one of the new seven wonders of the modern world, a private initiative of New Open World Corporation (NOWC), created by the Swiss Bernard Weber, not needing the endorsement of any institution or Government to continue with its electoral purposes and allow to select the wonders classified by the vote of more than one hundred million voters.90? 91? This vote was supported by the government of Alan García Pérez, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Tourism sector; this diffusion had its fruits in a great participation of the Peruvian people as a whole and also in the international arena.92? When knowing the results, President Alan García declared by supreme decree, on July 7 as “Day of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu”, to remember the importance of the sanctuary for the world, recognize the participation of the Peruvian people in voting and promote The tourism.

The New Seven Wonders of the Modern World were elected by popular vote under aesthetic, economic, tourist and recreational criteria rather than because of their historical importance or their artistic merit, so they do not have the backing of institutions such as UNESCO.94? However, the distinction has a great echo, which leads to an important additional demand for tourism. In fact, Machu Picchu is today the main tourist destination in Peru with 600,000 visitors / year (according to MINCETUR) and one of the most desired by travelers from around the world.